TPP- TRANS - PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP is a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) among twelve country members, including United States, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Chile, New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia and Vietnam. On February 4th, 2016, TPP was officially signed and was expected to come into force in 2018. After the US’s withdrawal in January 2017, TPP can not meet enough requirements for enforcement as expected. In November 2017, Trade ministers from 11 member countries of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) have agreed on core elements of the pact, which is from now on called the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). In March 2018, CPTPP was officially signed by 11 country members (excluding United States). This Agreement was approved by 8 country members including Australia, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Singapore, New Zealand, Vietnam, Peru and officially came into force on 30 December 2018. CPTPP came into force in Vietnam since 14 January 2019, and in Peru since 19 September 2021. CPTPP maintain almost TPP commitments excluding: (i) United States-related commitments (ii) 22 freeze clauses (having Detailed List) and (iii) some modifications in Side Letters among CPTPP members.


CAT- United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.